Desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria)

From HopperWiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria)
Desert locust
Distribution
Israel, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Morocco, Algeria, Niger, Mauritania, Chad, Mali, Lebanon, Sudan, Afghanistan, Kuwait, Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Somalia, South Sudan, Pakistan, Ethiopia, Libya, Kenya, India, Oman, Bahrain, Djibouti, Yemen, Uganda, Egypt, Eritrea, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, State of Palestine, Tanzania, Syrian Arab Republic, Iran, Turkey
Taxonomy
Family:Acrididae
Subfamily:Cyrtacanthacridinae
Genus:Schistocerca
Additional resources
Full taxonomy from OSF

Placeholder image
This page is incomplete and lacking information and resources! If you have expertise or materials on this topic that you are willing to contribute, please feel free to add it here using the Edit button above or get in touch with an administrator to help.

The desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775), distributed from Mauritania to India is considered the most dangerous of all migratory pests. [1] Because of their extraordinary traits of gregariousness, mobility, voracity, and the sheer size of their swarms, which can reach hundreds of millions of individuals in a single congregation [2], this species has plagued farmers for millennia.

The desert locust is known for its highly polyphagous nature, especially during the gregarious phase.[3] This voracious species consumes not only natural vegetation but also a wide variety of food crops. When they swarm, they have the ability to decimate extensive areas of crops, leaving them completely defoliated, while their sheer weight can cause tree branches to break under their relentless onslaught. [4]

Today the desert locust impacts over 60 countries. In 2019–2021 a major outbreak caused extensive damage in the Greater Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and parts of southwest Asia. By August 2021, over 2.2 million hectares of land has been treated to control the desert locust and The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) calculates interventions saved USD 1.7 billion in crop and milk production.[5]

Nomenclature

Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775). For full nomenclature, see this taxon's page on Orthoptera Species File.


Identification

S. gregaria ID page from Pest Grasshoppers and Locusts in Central Senegal

Has a posternal tubercle (a small knob-like protrusion) between front legs. Tegmina (thick front wing of an orthopteran) marked with large irregular spots. Pronotum (saddle-shaped structure behind the head) is not crested, is more condensed and prominent saddle shape in gregarious phase. [6]

Phase Stage Color Body length
Gregarious nymph (1st - 2nd instar) black
Gregarious nymph (3rd to 4th instar) yellow with black
Solitarious nymph green
Gregarious immature adult pink
Gregarious mature adult yellow
Solitarious adult sandy, grey or brown, common light colored median stripe on the pronotum [6]

Identification resources

Title Link Descriptive keyword Language Geographic purview Author Year
A locust officer's field guide View URL Behavior, Species identification, Outbreaks English Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Central Region, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2003
Community management of pest grasshoppers and locusts in Senegal View URL Management, Species identification, Agriculturist guide Wolof, French, English Senegal Global Locust Initiative, United States Agency for International Development, Directorate of Plant Protection 2020
Desert locust field handbook View URL Species identification, Management English Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International 2020
FAO desert locust biology and behaviour guidelines View URL Behavior, Biology, Training manual, Species identification English, French, Arabic, Somali Southern Asia, Western Asia Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2001
FAO locust handbook identification key View URL Species identification, Locusts English FAO Desert Locust Information Service, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Locust identification in Niger View URL Management, Species identification, Agriculturist guide French, Zarma, Hausa Niger Global Locust Initiative, United States Agency for International Development, Directorate of Plant Protection, United Nations AGRHYMET Regional Center, Centre National de Lutte Anti-Acridienne, National Network of Agriculture Chambers of Niger 2022
Management of pest grasshoppers and locusts in Mali View URL Management, Species identification, Agriculturist guide Wolof, French, Fulfuldé, Bambara, Songhaï Senegal Global Locust Initiative, United States Agency for International Development, Directorate of Plant Protection 2020
Nymphal Growth in Schistocerca View URL Photos, Timelapse, Community development, Biology, Nymphs, Growth, Species identification English Behavioral Plasticity Research Institute 2024
Orthoptera Species File View URL Species identification, Biology English Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe, Oceania Orthoptera Species File Online
Pest locusts View URL History, Archive, Species identification French, English Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe, Oceania The French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development



Distribution

Recession zone: 16 million km2 from the Atlantic Ocean to NW India. Invasion zone: 29 million km2 including all of N Africa, parts of the Iberian peninsula, all Middle East countries north to S Russia, most of India, E. Africa as far as 10 degrees S, and central and W Africa south to the equatorial forests. [6]

Swarms bred during the summer often migrate from the Sahel of West Africa and Sudan to Northwest Africa, or from Sudan to the Red Sea coast. Swarms bred in the winter migrate from the Red Sea coastal plains to the interior of Saudi Arabia or Sudan. Spring-bred swarms can migrate from the interior of Arabia to Sudan and West Africa, or from the Horn of Africa to the Indo-Pakistan border.[7]

For more information and distribution records see [GBIF]

Biology

Life cycle parameters [8]
Phase Developmental time
Eggs 10-65 days
Hopper 24-95 days (36 days average)
Adult 2.5-5 months
Laying-fledging 40-50 days
Adult maturation 3 weeks-9 months (2-4 months average)
Total 2-6 month
FAO Desert Locust Guidelines Biology and Behaviour 1
  • Exhibits phase polyphenism most sensitive to changes in population density
  • Rapid phase transformation from solitarious to gregarious and vice versa

Habitat and Ecology

The desert locust is highly adapted to live in arid environments. Their swarms typically originate in uninhabited desert regions across North Africa, the Middle East, and Southwest Asia. During times of recession, the desert locust lives in the arid and semi-arid habitat stretching from the west coast of Africa to northwest India with an average annual rainfall of roughly 0–400 mm. [9]

Rainfall plays an important role in understanding the population dynamics and behavior of the desert locust. Eggs need to absorb their weight in water from the soil during the first days of incubation to allow complete development. [6] Breeding occurs one month after rainfall of 20-25 mm of rain that supplies the vegetation hoppers need to grow. [6] Sandy soil is preferred for oviposition sites. Although rainfall tends to fall seasonally, it is sporadic, varying as much as 70% above of below average, [9] Outbreak areas arise as a result of rainfall events, subsequent vegetation, and temperature. After a substantial rainfall event somewhere in the recession zone, locusts seize the opportunity and multiply rapidly. Under ideal conditions, locusts can increase 16-20 times every three months after a new generation of breeding. [7] Gregarization can occur as large numbers of locusts concentrate on patches of green vegetation (intensified as moisture drys and vegetation becomes sparse) increasing physical contact and initiating hopper bands or adult swarms that behave as a cohesive unit. If more rains come, populations can explode, producing two or more successive generations. [7] Interestingly, virgin females of this species have the ability to produce female offspring parthenogenetically. [10]

Desert locust hoppers can eat their body weight daily, starting at 20 mg in the first instar to around 1.5 g in the middle of the fifth instar. [6] Migrating immature adults need to eat 2-3 g per day and up to three times as much. Although mature adult consumption declines (less in females), a swarm often has 50 million individuals per square kilometer, translating to a moderate swarm of 10 km2 would eat ~1000 tonnes of vegetation daily on migration.[6]

Land-Use / climate change

Climate change and the desert locust FAO information
The anticipated responses of the solitarious ranges of the two desert locust subspecies are expected to differ.[4] The widely recognized northern subspecies (S. gregaria gregaria) may experience contraction in certain regions, whereas the less investigated southern subspecies (S. gregaria flaviventris) is projected to undergo expansion (Meynard et al. 2017). This study underscores that although S. g. flaviventris has infrequently experienced outbreaks in the past, it represents a subspecies that could potentially pose a future threat.[4]

Pest Status

Recent Outbreaks

desert locust swarm (Schistocerca gregaria)

For millennia, humans have feared desert locusts for their potential to devastate crops. The first records appear in 2420 BC on Egyptian tombs. [11] They continue to be a major threat to agriculture, although the frequency and duration of plagues have decreased due to the introduction of chemical pesticides, advancements in transportation and infrastructure, and technology related to communications, geopositioning, spatial analysis, remote sensing, and early warning, all components of preventative control. [12] [7]

Five major plagues occurred in the first 60 years of the twentieth century, lasting as long as fourteen years. [7] 1861–67, 1869–81, 1889–1910, 1912–19, 1926–34, 1940–48, 1949–63, 1967–1968 , 1978[6], and 1986–1989. A plague is defined as a period of one or more years of widespread and heavy infestations, predominately as hopper bands and swarms. A severe plague is when two or more regions are affected simultaneously. [7]

Upsurges in 1972–1974, 1987–1989, 1992–1994, 1994–1996, 1996–1998, 2004–2005, and 2019–2021)

An upsurge is defined as a large increase in locust numbers and simultaneous outbreaks followed by two or more successive generations of gregarious breeding. [7]

Outbreaks 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2016, 2018

2003–2005 Plague
Cost over $500 million USD to control [13] 80–100% crop losses in regions like Sub- Saharan Africa. [2]

An outbreak is an increase in locusts on a local scale caused by concurrent concentration, multiplication, and gregarization [14]

desert locust swarm (Schistocerca gregaria)

2019–2021 upsurge

http://www.fao.org/ag/locusts/en/info/2094/web18/index.html

For some countries in the Greater Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and parts of southwest Asia, the 2019-2021 desert locust upsurge was the worst seen in seventy years, affecting 2.5 million people in 2020 and at least another 1 million in early 2021.[15] The situation spread to eight African countries, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Uganda, and Tanzania. India and Pakistan were impacted as well as the Middle Eastern countries of Omen, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Qatar.[16]

Two cyclones in 2018, May Cyclone Mekunu and October Cyclone Luban brought heavy rains to the Empty Quarter on the Arabian Peninsula. These unusually conducive weather conditions allowed at least three generations of locust breeding that went undetected and developed into the 2019-2021 upsurge. Swarms moved into Saudi Arabia, southern Iran, and southwest to the interior of Yemen from January to March 2019. In June, two generations of spring breeding spread to the Horn of Africa and to the Indo-Pakistan border. Heavy monsoon rains encouraged three more generations in the Indo-Pakistan area while two generations proliferated in the northern Horn of Africa. At the end of 2019, Cyclone Pawan in northeast Somalia brought rain to sustain two more generations of breeding that moved into Kenya. [16]

In 2020, locusts spread within the Horn of Africa and into East Africa, reaching southern Kenya and northern Tanzania, northeast Uganda, southeast South Sudan, and northeast D.R. Congo. Kenya, Ethiopia, and Somalia were the most severely impacted. Aerial and ground control operations continued against widespread swarm laying, hatchlings, and numerous hopper bands throughout northern and central Kenya and southern Ethiopia.[16]

New swarms formed in northern Somalia and Kenya. Several swarms were present in Yemen and some moved into Saudi Arabia. In February 2020, swarms appeared in Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and 22 swarms arrived in southern Iran, where locusts quickly matured and laid eggs. Residual summer-bred swarms were present in Rajasthan, India, and laid eggs in areas of Punjab, Pakistan.[16]

2021
During the dry season in East Africa, desert locust swarms remained immature for several months longer than usual. Infestations declined by mid-March due to control operations, the absence of rains and further maturing in Ethiopia and Kenya. The same swarm was reported six times in Kenya, giving the false impression of greater swarm activity. However, new immature swarms were forming in NW and NE Somalia and persisted for several months until sufficient rain came in later April allowing maturation. [17] Mature swarms moved north into eastern Ethiopia and adjacent areas of NW Somalia. There was widespread hatching and bands in Saudi Arabia's interior. Mature adult groups of locusts and small swarms rode a strong southerly wind from Saudi Arabia to Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Egypt. [18] By June 2021, there was an increasing number of immature swarms mostly in NW Somalia but also eastern Ethiopia, SE Djibouti. Breeding ceaseed in N Saudi Arabia and immature groups move south. [19] Conflict in Ethiopia prevented management operations and by October a few small mature groups and swarms from N Ethiopia move to Eritrea coast and lay eggs.[20] Control activities continued in NE Somalia and a few small spring-bred swarms from NE Somalia arrived on the Ethiopia/Kenya border. By December, few swarms remained and poor winter breeding along the Red Sea helped the situation calm down.[20] The upsurge in the Horn of Africa was officially declared over in February 2022 and officially on March 2, 2022 in the Desert Locust Bulletin.

The FAO and its partners raised more than 243 million USD to mobilize control efforts, from surveillance to rapid support for countries scrambling to put together response systems. [21] Aerial operations treated desert locusts across 2.3 million ha in the Horn of Africa and Yemen since January 2020. FAO reports these efforts averted 4.5 million metric tonnes of crop losses, saved 900 million liters of milk production, and secured food for nearly 42 million people. [22] The commercial value of the cereal and milk loss averted is estimated at USD 1.8 billion. [22] However, the complex interplay of tradeoffs that accompany the widespread use of organophosphates and pyrethroid pesticides is understudied and could be felt for years to come. Among the affected countries, Somalia was alone in exclusively using biopesticides and insect growth regulators (IGRs), which are slower-acting and much less harmful to non-target organisms and human health than synthetic pesticides. [23] See biopesticides page.

FAO Locust Watch has current situation bulletins and a timeline of the 2019-2021 outbreak.

Insecticide use against desert locust in the Horn of Africa 2019–2021 reveals a pressing need for change

Written by Elena Lazutkaite

A study by TMG Research "Insecticide Use against Desert Locust in the Horn of Africa 2019–2021 Reveals a Pressing Need for Change" published in Agronomy examined the extensive use of chemical insecticides in Ethiopia and Kenya, and the pioneering large-scale application of biopesticides methods in Somalia.

During this period, approximately 1.6 million hectares across Ethiopia and Kenya were treated with broad-spectrum organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides.[24] This response raised significant environmental concerns. In Kenya, the overdosing of fenitrothion (960 g/L formulation) resulted in the unintended mortality of non-target species, including birds and honeybees. In Ethiopia, the use of chlorpyrifos and malathion coincided with a drastic 78% decline in honey production in 2020, compared to levels before the locust upsurge, equating to a loss of US$500 million in revenue. Ecosystem services provided by bees are estimated to be worth more than 15 times the value of honey and other hive products combined. Tallying the cost of recolonizing empty beehives as well as of wild pollinators, the “true cost” of the organophosphate campaign is likely to be in the realm of billions of dollars.

A critical issue identified in the study was the lack of environmental monitoring during the upsurge. Only limited surveys were conducted in Kenya and Ethiopia, which were insufficient to fully understand the ecological impact of the chemical insecticide use.[24]

Importantly, Somalia was the only country in the region to apply the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum and insect growth regulator teflubenzuron.[24] The use of M. acridum (50g per liter and 1 liter per ha) on nearly 253,000 ha was a breakaway from previous campaigns. Its successful large-scale application against both hopper bands and swarms proved the viability of sustainable, environmentally friendly alternatives, making the persistent and pervasive use of organophosphate insecticides untenable.

The researchers also recommended an integrated management approach that considers the complementary impact of biological control agents like M. acridum and natural predation by birds.[24] Avian predators play a crucial role in locust population control, particularly post M. acridum treatment. Unlike chemical pesticides that harm bird populations and therefore weaken natural control and resilience, M. acridum and bird predation are fully compatible and complement each other. Locusts infected with fungus become sluggish and move up in vegetation to bask in the sun, exposing them to predators. This approach could offer a more sustainable and ecologically sound solution for controlling both locust swarms and hoppers.

The study also pointed out that the future procurement of organophosphate insecticides and possibly insect growth regulators may face challenges due to regulatory measures by the European Union (EU). To illustrate, chlorpyrifos is banned in both the EU and the U.S. This trend towards stricter pesticide regulations further underscores the need for alternative locust control strategies.

Outbreak media coverage 2020-2021

View archives of media collected during the 2020-2021 outbreak here

Title Link Descriptive keyword Language Geographic purview Author Year
'Many will starve': locusts devour crops and livelihoods in Pakistan View URL Media article, Locust outbreaks English The Guardian 2020
‘Like an Umbrella Had Covered the Sky’: Locust Swarms Despoil Kenya View URL Media article, Locust outbreaks English The New York Times 2020
‘Make noise and don’t panic’: India tries to ward off locust invasion View URL Media article, Locust outbreaks English The Guardian 2020
A locust plague hit East Africa View URL Media article, Locust outbreaks English Eastern Africa National Geographic 2021
Africa Braces for a Record Wave of Locusts View URL Media article, Locust outbreaks English Wall Street Journal 2020
Artificial Intelligence Helping African Farmers in the Fight Against Locusts View URL Media article, Locust outbreaks English Eastern Africa Farmers Review Africa 2021
As Locusts Swarmed East Africa, This Tech Helped Squash Them View URL Media article, Locust outbreaks English Eastern Africa The New York Times 2021
Biblical plague or manageable threat? View URL Media article, Locust outbreaks English Kenya The Telegraph 2021
Billions of locusts are descending on Ethiopia View URL Video, General locust education, Media article, Locust outbreaks English Ethiopia Washington Post 2020
Climate change favours locust swarms, India increasingly at risk View URL
Media article, Outbreaks, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Infestations, Agriculture, Crop health, Food security, Governance, Aerial control operations, Chemical control, Pesticides, Management, Integrated pest management, Spraying, Forecasting, Early warning, Advisory note, Ecology, Biology, Economics, Morphology, Behavior, Rainfall, Weather, Climate Change, Monitoring
English Mongabay-India 2020
Crunch, Crunch: Africa's Locust Outbreak Is Far From Over View URL Media article, Locusts, Locust outbreaks, Outbreaks, Infestations, Crop health, Rangeland management, Livestock, Grazing, Livelihoods, Food security, Migration, Economics, Climate Change, Weather English US News & World Report
Desert Locust ‘re-invasion’ threatens millions across Horn of Africa View URL Newsletter, Media article, Agriculture, Crop health, Food security, Livelihoods, Emergency response, Locusts, Locust outbreaks, Outbreaks, Infestations, Management, Grazing, Decision making, Economics, Press release English United Nations 2020
East Africa fears second wave - of locust swarms View URL Media article, Outbreaks, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Infestations, Early warning, Forecasting, Crop health, Agriculture, Management, Grazing, Livestock, Livelihoods, Food security, Monitoring, Pesticides, Chemical control, Aerial control operations, Spraying, Rainfall, Weather English BBC News 2020
East Africa’s plague of locusts and the bizarre climate science behind it View URL Media article, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Outbreaks, Infestations, Climate Change, Weather, Rainfall, Agriculture, Crop health, Food security English National Geographic 2020
Emergency Locust Response Program Phase 3 The World Bank Group View URL Media article English Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Yemen, South Sudan World Bank, Intergovernmental Authority on Development 2021
Fighting a locust plague amid Covid-19 in east Africa View URL Video, General locust education English Eastern Africa The Guardian 2020
Fighting Back Against 2020's Massive Locust Swarms View URL General locust education, Video English Curiosity Stream 2020
First floods, then desert locusts View URL Newsletter, Agriculture, Crop health, Infestations, Food security, Press release, Media article, Management, Locusts, Locust outbreaks, Livelihoods, Emergency response, Community development, Advocacy English Somalia Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2021
How a single locust becomes a plague View URL
Media article, Education, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Outbreaks, Infestations, Infographic, Migration, Physiology, Morphology, Behavior, Crop health, Agriculture, Economics, Food security, Livelihoods, Rainfall, Weather, Climate Change, Early warning, Monitoring, Chemical control, Pesticides, Aerial control operations, Biopesticide, Biological control, Management, Integrated pest management
English BBC News
How a UN-led fight against locusts took a toxic toll on Kenyan farmers View URL Locust outbreaks, Pesticides, Biopesticide, Emergency response English Kenya Grist 2023
How do you fight a locust invasion amid coronavirus? View URL Media article, Locust outbreaks, Outbreaks, Locusts, Infestations, Food security, Crop health, Agriculture, Economics, Governance, Pesticides, Chemical control, Aerial control operations, PPE and cleaning, Rainfall, Climate Change, Biopesticide, Spraying English BBC News 2020
How Kenya’s farmers are trying to outsmart locusts and climate change View URL Media article, Locust outbreaks, Outbreaks, Locusts, Infestations, Food security, Crop health, Agriculture, Climate Change, Management English Kenya The Independent 2021
How war threatens Ethiopia's struggle against worst locust swarm in 25 years View URL
Media article, Outbreaks, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Infestations, Agriculture, Crop health, Food security, Mechanical control, Rainfall, Economics, Emergency alerts, Governance, Aerial control operations, Pesticides, Chemical control, Management, Pesticide management, Livelihoods, Collective movement
English The Guardian 2020
Hundreds of billions of locusts swarm in East Africa View URL Media article, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Outbreaks, Infestations, Crop health, Agriculture, Food security, Governance, Emergency response, Economics, Spraying, Aerial control operations, Chemical control, Monitoring, Biological control English BBC News 2020
In Kenya, lessons from 2020 prepare responders for a locust re-invasion View URL Media article, Outbreaks, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Infestations, Crop health, Agriculture, Livelihoods, Livestock, Grazing, Governance, Management, Chemical control, Pesticides, Spraying, Monitoring, Collective movement, Community development, Aerial control operations, Economics English Kenya Devex 2021
India combats locust attack amid Covid-19 pandemic View URL
Media article, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Outbreaks, Agriculture, Crop health, Emergency response, Governance, Management, Integrated pest management, Collective movement, Migration, Mechanical control, Early warning, Food security, Economics, Aerial control operations, Chemical control, Spraying, Pesticides, PPE and cleaning
English BBC News 2020
Intensive control operations reduced locust threat in India, Pak, says FAO View URL Media article, Outbreaks, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Infestations, Management, Governance, Chemical control, Pesticides, Pesticide management, Early warning, Spraying, Robotics and drone technology, Aerial control operations, Community development English Hindustan Times 2020
Kenya Beats Back Fresh Wave of Desert Locust Invasions View URL Media article, Locust outbreaks, Outbreaks, Locusts, Infestations, Management English Kenya Bloomberg News 2021
Kenya uses app in battle against desert locusts View URL Media article, Outbreaks, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Infestations, Agriculture, Crop health, Economics, Monitoring, Early warning, eLocust, Pesticides, Chemical control, Rainfall, Migration English Business Insider
Kenya: A sustainable solution to locust swarms? View URL Media article, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Outbreaks, Infestations, Food security, Livelihoods, Crop health, Agriculture, Livestock, Mechanical control, Edible insects, Management, Integrated pest management, Community development, Collective movement English Kenya BBC News 2021
Kenya's farmers struggle as locusts descend View URL Mechanical control, Locust outbreaks English Kenya Deutsche Welle 2021
Kenya's Locust Outbreak May Be Nearing End as Spring Rains Are Delayed View URL Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Outbreaks, Infestations English The Weather Channel
Kenya's pastoralists face hunger and conflict as locust plague continues View URL Media article, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Outbreaks, Infestations, Crop health, Agriculture, Rainfall, Weather, Grazing, Livestock, Food security, Economics, Emergency response, Collective movement, Pesticides, Chemical control, Biodiversity, Spraying, Monitoring English The Guardian 2020
Locust Invasion View URL General locust education, Video English Go Wild 2020
Locust Swarms as Big as Cities are Causing a Crisis in Africa View URL
Media article, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Outbreaks, Infestations, Crop health, Agriculture, Livelihoods, Livestock, Grazing, Food security, Early warning, Forecasting, Economics, Collective movement, Climate Change, Rainfall, Management, Integrated pest management, Edible insects, Chemical control, Mechanical control
English Newsweek 2020
Locust swarms pose new threat to Middle East and Africa’s food security View URL Media article, Food security, Crop health, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Rainfall, Climate Change, Outbreaks, Infestations, Livelihoods, Weather, Agriculture, Monitoring English Eastern Africa Arab News 2021
Locust Swarms Ravaging East Africa Are the Size of Cities View URL
Media article, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Outbreaks, Infestations, Mechanical control, Crop health, Agriculture, Food security, Rainfall, Forecasting, Monitoring, Climate Change, Amazing footage, Video, Weather, Economics, Livelihoods, Livestock, Grazing, Morphology, Behavior, Spraying, Pesticides, Emergency response
English Bloomberg News 2020
Locust Swarms Threaten Parts Of East Africa View URL Media article, Outbreaks, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Infestations, Crop health, Agriculture, Monitoring, Pesticides, Aerial control operations, Chemical control, Management, Rainfall, Weather, Climate Change, Food security, Livelihoods, Migration, Biological control, Economics English Eastern Africa National Public Radio 2021
Locust swarms: How can they be warded off? View URL
Media article, Outbreaks, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Infestations, Governance, Emergency response, eLocust, Spraying, Chemical control, Pesticides, Pesticide management, Monitoring, Survey, Earth observation, Agriculture, Crop health, Public health, Environmental assessment, Biological control, Behavior, Climate Change
English Down to Earth
Locusts Are A Plague Of Biblical Scope In 2020. Why? And ... What Are They Exactly? View URL Media article, Outbreaks, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Infestations, Food security, Agriculture, Crop health, Forecasting, General locust education, Ecology, Morphology, Behavior, Biology, Migration, Rainfall, Weather, Climate Change, Livelihoods, Livestock English National Public Radio 2020
Locusts: A close-up look at the swarms devouring the world's crops - BBC News View URL Media article, Infographic, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Outbreaks, Infestations, Agriculture, Crop health, Food security, Livelihoods, Rainfall, Forecasting, Biology, Ecology, Morphology, Behavior, Migration, Distribution, Climate Change English BBC News
Mega Disasters: Super Swarms of Locusts View URL General locust education, Video English United States of America History Channel 2021
New Generation of Desert Locusts Breeding in Horn of Africa View URL Media article, Outbreaks, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Infestations, Forecasting English Bloomberg News 2020
New USAID Award to Combat Desert Locusts View URL Media article, Outbreaks, Locust outbreaks, Infestations, Locusts, Governance, Emergency response, Monitoring, Agriculture, Crop health, Economics, Food security English U.S. Embassy in Uganda 2020
Pakistan turns locusts into chicken feed to tackle the invasion View URL Mechanical control, Locust outbreaks English Pakistan Aljazeera 2020
Second wave of locusts in east Africa said to be 20 times worse View URL Media article, Outbreaks, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Infestations, Food security, Livelihoods, Agriculture, Crop health, Rainfall, Pesticides, Management, Chemical control, Aerial control operations, Livestock, Governance, Emergency response English The Guardian 2020
See how a plague of locusts forms View URL Media article, Outbreaks, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Infestations, Education, Infographic, General locust education, Biology, Morphology, Ecology, Behavior, Physiology, Evolution, Mating behavior, Migration, Distribution, Early warning, Forecasting, Chemical control, Pesticides, Weather English National Geographic
Signs of hope in East Africa, as control campaign tames locust upsurge View URL English Eastern Africa Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2021
Stopping swarming locusts View URL Media article, Video, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Outbreaks, Infestations, Agriculture, Crop health, Management, Pesticide management, Chemical control, Biological control, Ecology, Behavior, Food security, Livelihoods, Biology English The Naked Scientists 2020
Swarm Of Locusts DEVOUR Everything In Their Path View URL General locust education, Video, Amazing footage English BBC News 2017
Targeting Breeding Sites May Avoid Further Locust Infestations in Africa View URL Media article, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Outbreaks, Infestations, Forecasting, Early warning, Monitoring, Modeling, Crop health, Grazing, Livestock, Agriculture, Economics, Ecology, Pesticides, Biopesticide, Chemical control, Management, Pesticide management, Environmental assessment, Behavior English Science Times 2020
Teaming up to defend against locusts View URL
Newsletter, Media article, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Outbreaks, Infestations, Integrated pest management, Food security, Crop health, Livelihoods, Emergency response, Collective movement, Community development, Chemical control, Management, Pesticide management, Pesticides, Public health, Spraying, Biopesticide
English OCHA Services Relief Web 2020
The Biblical locust plagues of 2020 View URL
Media article, Outbreaks, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Infestations, Crop health, Agriculture, Food security, Behavior, Ecology, Biology, Migration, Economics, Weather, Management, Integrated pest management, Mechanical control, Chemical control, Pesticides, Pesticide management, Livelihoods, Governance, Aerial control operations, Robotics and drone technology, Biopesticide, Biological control, Forecasting
English BBC News
The Terrifying Science Behind the Locust Plagues of Africa View URL
Media article, Outbreaks, Locust outbreaks, Infestations, Locusts, Crop health, Agriculture, Food security, Rainfall, Climate Change, Emergency response, Behavior, Biology, Migration, Morphology, Ecology, Evolution, Physiology, Management, Monitoring, Early warning, Pesticides, Chemical control, Aerial control operations, Biological control
English Wired
The World Bank Group and the Locust Crisis View URL Media article English Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda World Bank 2020
These Swarming Locusts Are Grasshoppers Gone Wrong View URL Video, Biology, Nutritional ecology, Locust outbreaks, General locust education English KQED - PBS Deep Look 2021
This Kenyan Startup Is Turning Locust Swarms into Animal Feed View URL Media article, Locust outbreaks, Outbreaks, Locusts, Infestations, Management, Weather, Climate Change, Livestock, Grazing, Edible insects, Crop health, Mechanical control, Livelihoods, Integrated pest management, Agriculture, Community development English Kenya Freethink 2021
To Fight Locusts, Historic Rivals India and Pakistan Team Up View URL Media article, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Outbreaks, Infestations, Collective movement, Crop health, Agriculture, Food security, Economics, Migration, Climate Change, Rainfall, Weather, Governance, Community development, Pesticide management, Management, Chemical control, Spraying, Pesticides English Undark Magazine 2020
To Track Massive Locust Swarms, Officials Use Tool that Forecasts Smoke Plumes View URL
Media article, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Outbreaks, Infestations, Management, Rainfall, Weather, Climate Change, Food security, Livelihoods, Migration, Agriculture, Crop health, Monitoring, Spraying, Pesticide management, Pesticides, Chemical control, Meteorology, Modeling, Behavior, Technology, Early warning, Forecasting
English Scientific American
Twelve fold increase in Ethiopia COVID-19 cases, severe weather and locusts creating massive need in Ethiopia, warns IRC View URL Media article, Locust outbreaks, Outbreaks, Locusts, Infestations, Rainfall, Crop health, Food security, Livelihoods, Agriculture, Collective movement, Management, Governance, Economics English International Rescue Committee
UN releases Sh164m for fight on locust upsurge View URL Media article, Locust outbreaks, Outbreaks, Locusts, Infestations, Management, Chemical control, Pesticides, Aerial control operations, Pesticide management, Monitoring, Spraying, Governance, Collective movement, Agriculture, Crop health, Livelihoods, Food security, Economics English Kenya Nation 2021
What’s Up With Those Locust Swarms? View URL
Media article, Locust outbreaks, Outbreaks, Locusts, Infestations, Education, General locust education, Grasshoppers, Behavior, Morphology, Agriculture, Ecology, Environmental science, Neurobiology, Migration, Rainfall, Climate Change, Crop health, Economics, Biology, Pesticides, Chemical control, Spraying, Public health, Early warning, eLocust, Biological control
English Forbes
When locust swarms are treated as a chance for profit View URL English BBC News
Why today's biblical locust swarms can't be stopped View URL Media article, Locust outbreaks, Outbreaks, Locusts, Infestations, Agriculture, Mechanical control, Chemical control, Management, Pesticides, Forecasting, Monitoring, Migration, Pesticide management, Public health, Crop health, Food security, Behavior, Rainfall, Climate Change English Mashable 2020
World Bank Announces $500 Million to Fight Locusts View URL Media article English Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda World Bank 2020



Associated organizations

{Organizations for species}}

Resources

Resource category Link
Information hubs View here
Guides View here
Technical reports View here
Situation bulletins View here
Projects View here
Title Link Descriptive keyword Language Geographic purview Author Year
View URL Management, Safety guidelines, Environmental assessment, Training manual English, French, Arabic Southern Asia, Western Asia Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO 2003
View URL Management, Training manual English, French, Arabic, Somali, Spanish Southern Asia, Western Asia Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO 2001
View URL English Egypt Locust Pesticide Referee Group 2009
2014 evaluation of field trials data on the efficacy and selectivity of insecticides on locusts and grasshoppers View URL Pesticides, Management, Pesticide management, Chemical control English Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Central Region, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2014
2021 evaluation of field trials data on the efficacy and selectivity of insecticides on locusts and grasshoppers View URL Report, Pesticides, Pesticide management, Management, Monitoring, Public health English Africa, Europe, Asia, Americas, Oceania Locust Pesticide Referee Group, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2021
A celebration of 50 years of service View URL Management, Archive, Decision making, Education English Egypt Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Central Region, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2019
A scoping paper on the ongoing desert locust crisis 2019-2021+ View URL Management English Think Tank for Sustainability 2022
Building national capacity View URL Education, Management, International development, Collective movement, Overview English Africa Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Central Region, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2019
CABI Green Muscle education videos View URL Video, Biological control, Biopesticide, Metarhizium acridum, Storage, Dosage, Application, PPE and cleaning Arabic, French, Russian, English Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe, Oceania 2021
Climate Change and Desert Locust View URL Climate Change, eLocust, RAMSES, SWARMS, DeLCoPA English Northern Africa, Western Asia Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2014
Climate change and food security in West Africa and North Africa View URL Climate Change, Chapter excerpt English Northern Africa, Western Asia Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2013
Climate change and locusts Pakistan View URL Climate Change English Pakistan Sustainable Development Policy Institute 2020
Decisions and risks View URL Decision making, Survey, Locusts English Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Central Region, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Desert locust control in Somalia between 2019 and 2021 View URL Biopesticide English Somalia 2022
Desert locust early warning system infographic View URL Early warning, Infographic English Africa, Asia FAO Desert Locust Information Service, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Desert Locust Forecasting: Art or Science? View URL Video, Presentation, Early warning English Africa, Asia FAO Desert Locust Information Service, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Desert Locust Master Trainer Manual View URL Locusts, Management, Training manual English Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Central Region, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Desert locust master training manual View URL Management, Training manual English Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Jordan, Kuwait, Iraq, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Somalia Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Central Region, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO 2003
Desert Locust Monitoring and Loss Assessment in Yemen View URL Forecasting English Yemen Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Zoology
Desert locust preventive control strategy in the Near East and Horn of Africa View URL Early warning, Emergency response, Management, Infestations English Africa Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Central Region, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2020
Desert locust surveillance and control programmatic environmental assessment View URL Monitoring, Environmental assessment, Management English Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia United States Agency for International Development 2020
Desert locust technical series History, Management English Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Drones for desert locust control in East Africa View URL Robotics and drone technology English Kenya Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International
East Africa desert locust crisis fact sheets View URL English Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Yemen, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo United States Agency for International Development 2019, 2020, 2021
East Africa Hazards Watch Map View URL Map English Eastern Africa IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre
eLocust3 digital tools View URL App English Asia, Africa FAO Desert Locust Information Service, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO
FAO commission for controlling the desert locust in the central region fifty years fighting desert locust View URL International development, Community development, Environmental assessment, Decision making English Northern Africa Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Central Region, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2016
FAO desert locust campaign organization & execution guidelines View URL Campaign organization, Training manual English, French, Arabic Southern Asia, Western Asia Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2001
FAO desert locust guidelines appendixes View URL Management, Training manual English, French, Arabic Southern Asia, Western Asia Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2001
FAO desert locust information and forecasting guidelines View URL Forecasting, Training manual English, French, Arabic Southern Asia, Western Asia Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2001
FAO desert locust survey guidelines View URL Survey, Training manual English, French, Arabic, Somali, Spanish Southern Asia, Western Asia Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2001
FAO dlocust resources View URL Robotics and drone technology English Africa, Asia FAO Desert Locust Information Service, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FAO eLocust3m information videos View URL App, Video English Southern Asia, Western Asia FAO Desert Locust Information Service, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FAO emergencies and resilience View URL English Southern Asia, Western Asia Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FAO Emergency Centre for Locust Operations After Action Review 2005 View URL After action review, Management English Africa, Asia Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2005
FAO Infographic the 2020–2021 desert locust upsurge View URL Management English Eastern Africa Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2022
FAO locust Emergency prepaRedness Toolkit (eLERT) View URL Agriculture, Biopesticide, Chemical control, Dosage, Emergency response, Information hub, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Management, Pesticide storage, Pesticides, Biological control, Mechanical control, PPE and cleaning, Spraying, Pesticide management, Public health, Advice, Outbreaks, Database English Southern Asia, Western Asia FAO Food Chain Crisis Management Framework, FAO Emergency Operations and Rehabilitation Division, FAO Plant Production and Protection Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FAO Locust Hub View URL Distribution, Earth observation, Weather, Infographic, Information hub, Locust outbreaks, Locusts, Map, Monitoring, Soil science, Ecology, Outbreaks, Infestations English Southern Asia, Western Asia Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FAO locust response overview dashboard View URL English Southern Asia, Western Asia Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FAO Locust Watch Desert Locust View URL Forecasting, Information hub, Emergency alerts English, Arabic, French Southern Asia, Western Asia FAO Desert Locust Information Service, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FAO Multilateral evaluation of the 2003-05 Desert Locust campaign View URL Management English Eastern Africa Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2006
FAO RAMSES View URL Monitoring English Asia, Africa FAO Desert Locust Information Service, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FAO Role in the management of the desert locust crisis View URL Presentation English Africa, Asia FAO Locusts and Transboundary Plant Pests and Diseases, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2021
FAO-CRC Executive Secretary witnessed Eritrea’s commitment to control desert locust View URL Agriculture, Early warning, Outbreaks English Eritrea Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Central Region, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2019
FAO: Tracking Locust with Tech View URL Early warning, Forecasting English Africa Vulcan
Field tests on an integrated Differential GPS navigation and spray monitoring system for aerial Desert Locust control operations View URL Spraying, Aerial control operations, Monitoring English Sudan Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Central Region, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1998
Future orientation and challenges View URL Outbreaks, Management, International development, Emergency response, Early warning English Africa Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Central Region, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2019
Glossary on Desert Locust View URL Locusts, Grasshoppers, Sustainability science Arabic, English Italy Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Central Region, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2009
Google Earth Engine View URL Forecasting, Meteorology English Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe, Oceania Google Earth Engine
Greater Horn of Africa and Yemen Desert locust crisis appeal View URL English Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, Tanzania, Yemen, Kenya, Uganda, Eritrea Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2020
Guideline for the preparation of monthly campaign summary reports View URL Campaign organization, Spraying, Pesticides, Monitoring English Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Central Region, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
How Somalia used biopesticides to win against desert locusts View URL Biological control English Somalia Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2022
Human health and environmental safety in desert locust control operations View URL Public health, Conservation, Pesticide management, Metarhizium acridum, Early warning English Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Central Region, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2019
India Locust Warning Bulletin View URL Early warning English India Indian Council of Agricultural Research
InstaDeep early warning systems for locusts View URL Early warning English Africa InstaDeep, FAO Desert Locust Information Service, Google AI Accra
Inter-Regional Platform for the Sustainable Management of Desert Locusts View URL Management, Early warning English Eastern Africa, Western Africa IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre , FAO Desert Locust Control Organization for Eastern Africa, Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Central Region, World Bank 2021
Key aspects on desert locust information and reporting View URL Early warning, SWARMS, Geographic Information System (GIS) English Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Jordan, Kuwait, Iraq, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Somalia Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Central Region, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Lessons learned from the 2004 FAO aerial operations against desert locust View URL Management, Aerial control operations English Africa, Asia Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2005
Locust Literature View URL Archive French, English Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe, Oceania The French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development
Locust pesticide referee group reports View URL Pesticides, Management English Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe, Oceania Locust Pesticide Referee Group


References

  1. Steedman A (1990) Locust handbook. Chatham: Natural Resources Institute.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Brader L, Djibo H, Faye FG, Ghaout S, Lazar M, Luzietoso PN (2006) Towards a More Effective Response to Desert Locusts and Their Impacts on Food Security, Livelihoods and Poverty. Multilateral Evaluation of the 2003–05 Desert Locust Campaign. Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome.
  3. Despland E (2005) Diet breadth and anti-predator strategies in desert locusts and other Orthopterans. Journal of Orthoptera Research 14.2: 227–233.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Word Ries M, Adriaansen C, Aldobai S, Berry K, Bal AB, Catenaccio MC, Cigliano MM, Cullen DA, Deveson T, Diongue A, Foquet B, Hadrich J, Hunter D, Johnson DL, Pablo Karnatz J, Lange CE, Lawton D, Lazar M, Latchininsky AV, Lecoq M, Le Gall M, Lockwood J, Manneh B, Overson R, Peterson BF, Piou C, Poot-Pech MA, Robinson BE, Rogers SM, Song H, Springate S, Therville C, Trumper E, Waters C, Woller DA, Youngblood JP, Zhang L, Cease A (2024) Global perspectives and transdisciplinary opportunities for locust and grasshopper pest management and research. Journal of Orthoptera Research 33(2): 169–216. doi:10.3897/jor.33.112803.
  5. FAO (2022) Desert locust upsurge – Progress report on the response in the Greater Horn of Africa and Yemen, September–December 2021. Rome. https://doi.org/10.4060/cc0175en
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 COPR (1982) The Locust and Grasshopper Agricultural Manual. London: Overseas Pest Research. 690.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 Cressman K (2016) Desert locust. Biological and Environmental Hazards, Risks, and Disasters. First Edition. 87–105. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-394847-2.00006-1
  8. Symmons PM and Cressman K (2001) Desert Locust Guidelines: Biology and Behavior. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available from: http://www.fao.org/ag/locusts/common/ecg/347_en_DLG1e.pdf (November 25, 2019)
  9. 9.0 9.1 Le Gall M, Overson R, Cease A (2019) A global review on locusts (Orthoptera: Acrididae) and their interactions with livestock grazing practices. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 7: 263. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2019.00263
  10. Hamilton A, (1953) Parthenogenesis for Four Generations in the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forsk) (Acridae). Nature 172: 1153–1154. doi.org/10.1038/1721153a0
  11. Nevo D (1996) The desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, and its control in the land of Israel and the Near East in antiquity, with some reflections on its appearance in Israel in modern times. Phytoparasitica 24: 7–32. doi: 10.1007/BF02981450
  12. Magor JI, Lecoq M, Hunter DM (2008) Preventive control and Desert Locust plagues. Crop Protection 27: 1527–1533. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2008.08.006
  13. Belayneh YT (2005) Acridid pest management in the developing world: a challenge to the rural population, a dilemma to the international community. Journal of Orthoptera Research 14: 187–196. doi: 10.1665/1082-6467(2005)14[187:APMITD]2.0.CO;2
  14. Roffey J and Popov G (1968) Environmental and behavioural processes in a desert locust outbreak. Nature 219: 446. doi:10.1038/219446a0
  15. FAO (2021) Desert locust upsurge – Progress report on the response in the Greater Horn of Africa and Yemen (January-Aril 2021). Rome. http://www.fao.org/3/cb4925en/cb4925en.pdf
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 FAO Locust Watch “Desert Locust Upsurge in 2019–2021.” FAO Site, www.fao.org/ag/locusts/en/info/2094/web18/index.html. Accessed 7/14/21.
  17. FAO Locust Watch “Decline of the 2019–2021 upsurge.” FAO Site, www.fao.org/ag/locusts/en/info/2094/web18/index.html. Accessed 7/16/21.
  18. FAO Desert Locust Bulletin “General situation during April 2021 Forecast until mid-June 2021 (3 May 2021) 511: 1-10. http://www.fao.org/ag/locusts/common/ecg/2592/en/DL511e.pdf
  19. FAO Desert Locust Bulletin “General situation during June 2021 Forecast until mid-August 2021 (3 May 2021)" 513: 1-9. http://www.fao.org/ag/locusts/common/ecg/2599/en/DL513e.pdf
  20. 20.0 20.1 FAO DLIS (2022) "Desert Locust upsurge (2019–2021)". Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. https://www.fao.org/ag/locusts/en/info/2094/index.html Date accessed 2/1/23
  21. FAO (2022) Real-time evaluation of FAO’s response to the desert locust upsurge 2020–2021 – Phase III. Programme Evaluation Series, 04/2022. Rome.
  22. 22.0 22.1 FAO (2022) Desert locust upsurge – Progress report on the response in the Greater Horn of Africa and Yemen, September–December 2021. Rome.
  23. Owour A, McRae HD (2022) Desert locust control in Somalia between 2019 and 2021. international-pest-control.com. Research Information Ltd. September/October 64: 5.
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 Mullié WC, Prakash A, Müller A, Lazutkaite E (2023) Insecticide Use against Desert Locust in the Horn of Africa 2019–2021 Reveals a Pressing Need for Change. Agronomy 13: 819. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13030819